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August, 2012:

Internet Filtering and Online Freedom of Expression in Indonesia

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Indonesia, with population around 240 million people, now has 55 million Internet users, not including 33 million Internet mobile users who use a smartphone, tablet or modem dongle. There are at least 100 million active mobile numbers used for broadband/ 3G data access. For social media, Indonesia has 29.4 million users of Twitter. This figure puts Indonesia as the most active twitter country in the world, and Jakarta is the most active twitter city in the world. Indonesia also has 40.6 million Facebook users and about 3.3 million bloggers, with 33 local blogger communities. In terms of Internet infrastructure, Indonesia has 150 Internet Service Provider (ISP), 35 Network Access Provider (NAP), and 5 broadband 3G operator. To interconnect the data traffic within ISPs in Indonesia, there are about 10 nodes of Indonesian Internet eXchange (IIX) managed APJII (Indonesian ISP Association, APJII.or.id).

The entire ISP and mobile operators in Indonesia are now subject to the Ministry of Communications and ICT requests to block pornographic, gambling, copyright infringement and hates speech content. But there is no official reference and guidance from the government on how to block. So that the ISPs and 3G operators using its own system and database to perform the blocking. They feel compelled to follow the orders because getting threat of sanctions in the form of revocation of their license.

Blackberry / RIM was one of the example how the business sector forced to censor their content in Indonesia. RIM use Nawala Foundation (Nawala.org) blocking services to do filtering. Nawala is an organization that provides content blocking mechanism using DNS filtering or Open DNS. Founded in 2007, Nawala originally intended to serve only members of Indonesian Internet Kiosk Association (AWARI.or.id) and whoever those want to filter their Internet access, voluntarily. (Info: http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/indonesian-government-hails-blackberry-porn-filters/418185)

Just last week, APJII announced a partnership with Nawala. APJII provides 5 servers and operating costs for the purposes of blocking content. According to APJII, partnering with Nawala is one of the best efforts to protect the beginner Internet users and children from negative content such as pornography, gambling content and hate speech. Those 5 servers is planned to be planted in the nodes of IIX, we called Nawala-IIX. Database of the blacklisted sites will be managed jointly with APJII and Nawala. Until now, there’s no intention from APJII nor Nawala to invite and involve other parties outside of them, in determining once a site can get blacklisted or not. According to APJII, Nawala-IIX is not obligatory for its members. The system is only an option for the members that want to block the content delivered to their subscriber. For Nawala, the plantation of their blocking server system in the IIX network managed by APJII is something expected since in the prior time. (Info in Bahasa: http://www.antaranews.com/berita/326227/filter-konten-negatif-apjii-tanamkan-dns-nawala)

(more…)

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